- Created: 23-02-22
- Last Login: 23-02-22
Oxygen Generators separate oxygen from air so that the gas can be fed into industrial processes in real-time or stored in pressure tanks. Oxygen generators are used in dozens of industrial applications ranging from gold mining to aquaculture to life support.
Normal ambient air is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and other trace gases like argon and CO2. In order to remove the nitrogen and trace gases, an oxygen generator is used.
The smallest oxygen generators are no larger than a soda can, while industrial oxygen generators can fill a room. However, all oxygen generators have the same purpose: to provide a safe supply of concentrated oxygen gas.
Businesses who need bulk oxygen gas often start by purchasing tanks of the gas from other companies who fill those tanks using an industrial oxygen generator. If their need for pure oxygen is large and ongoing, it may be cost-effective to purchase their own oxygen generator system and produce oxygen on site. While the up-front cost of the machinery is significant, the cost per cubic foot of oxygen generated is 1/3 to 1/2 that of purchasing bulk oxygen, so over time, the oxygen generator can pay for itself.
One example of this is hospitals that pipe oxygen into patient rooms. Instead of using bottled oxygen, most hospitals have one or more Industrial Oxygen Generators in the building. A system of pressurized pipes are used to flow oxygen to each room.
Types of Oxygen Generators
Pressure Swing Adsorption Oxygen Generator
Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) is the most common method of producing oxygen at an industrial scale. PSA generators separate nitrogen from ambient air inside a pressurized tank filled with Zeolite. Zeolite is a natural or man-made mineral that acts as a “molecular sieve.” It is this ability to “sort” molecules by size that makes zeolite so useful. The larger nitrogen molecules are adsorbed by the sieve material while the smaller oxygen molecules drift past and are collected. Pressure is then released, the nitrogen molecules are vented to the atmosphere, and the tank is pressurized again.
Using PSA will result in 90-95% oxygenated gas. Further refinement can be achieved by repeating the process until over 99% “pure” oxygen is generated.
As a side note, the PSA process can also be used to generate nitrogen by collecting the nitrogen molecules and venting the oxygen. PSA is also used in the large-scale commercial synthesis of hydrogen used in oil refineries and in the production of ammonia for fertilizer.
One special kind of Medical Oxygen Generator is more commonly known as an oxygen concentrator which is used as an alternative to oxygen bottles for home health care. While the up-front cost of the machine is more expensive than oxygen cylinders, they are safer than bottled oxygen and over time less expensive than having oxygen tanks delivered to the home.
Oxygen Concentrators are normally sold through medical supply houses and can be purchased with a prescription from a physician.
Membrane Oxygen Generator
Membrane oxygen generators use a compressed air stream passed through semi-permeable materials that allow for the passage of specific molecules. Under pressure, smaller oxygen molecules pass through the membrane, filtered out and collected leaving a stream of nitrogen flowing out the opposite end of the membrane. While membrane-type generators are not as common, they are considered to be more reliable because there are no moving parts that can fail.
Chemical Oxygen Generator
A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen by a chemical reaction. A container of inorganic salts called “superoxides” or sodium chlorate is ignited. As they heat they give off oxygen until the compound is consumed.
Because of their long shelf-life, stability and small size (about the size of a can of soda) chemical oxygen generators are used in commercial airliners. Mounted over the seats, each generator can produce enough oxygen for 2-3 masks for 10-20 minutes. A similar device is called an oxygen candle. It works using the same principle of releasing oxygen with heat, and is used as a personal safety oxygen supply in mines, submarines and on the space station.
How a Nitrogen generator works
Nitrogen Generators are separated from other molecules within a clean, dry compressed air stream. Pressure Swing Adsorption technology is used here as well, to isolate nitrogen molecules from other molecules in compressed air to leave nitrogen at the desired purity at the outlet of the generator. For some applications, such as tire inflation and fire prevention, relatively low purity levels (between 90% and 97%) are required. Other applications, such as food/beverage processing and plastic molding, require higher levels of purity (from 97% to 99.999%).
Industries that use Nitrogen
Electronics, Steel, Welding/metalworking, Lighting, Oil & gas, On-Board Inert Gas Generation System (OBIGGS), Ammonia production, Helium purification, Product transfer, Packaging.
A variety of systems are available for generating industrial oxygen and nitrogen, including all-in-one skids that combine a compressed air system (to supply the required stream of dry compressed air) with an oxygen generator or nitrogen generator. Ask an air system professional about the best solution for generating oxygen and nitrogen in-house.
It’s only a little bigger than a computer monitor, yet as cases surge and with oxygen cylinders in short supply across several states, the concentrator is among the most sought after devices for oxygen therapy, especially among patients in home isolation and for hospitals running out of oxygen.
How are concentrators different from oxygen Cylinders and LMO?
Oxygen concentrators are the easiest alternatives to cylinders but can only supply 5-10 litres of oxygen per minute (critical patients may need 40-50 litres per minute) and are best suited for moderately ill patients.
Concentrators are portable and unlike LMO that needs to be stored and transported in cryogenic tankers, need no special temperature. And unlike cylinders that require refilling, concentrators only need a power source to draw in ambient air.
What is an air compressor? A look at the types and working principles.
An Air Compressor is a power tool that is used to convert power into energy, usually stored as pressurized air. Air compressors several methods to force more air into a cylinder/cylinders, thereby increasing the pressure. The compressor shuts off when the pressure reaches its upper limit, and it rests in the tank until a need arises.
Compressed air can be used for a variety of applications by using kinetic energy as the tank depressurizes. When the compressed air reaches its lower limit, the air compressor turns on again to re-pressurize.
Filter Elements are one of the most crucial parts on your injection molding machine. It is a key component and one of the greatest contributing factors to extending the life of your machine. Much like your kidneys, filter elements keep circulating fluids free from contamination and particles, which means your valves, pumps and hydraulic components will work properly.
Because of the importance of filter elements, you should ensure they are part of regular maintenance checks and that you replace filters as soon as they fail. In this article, we will go over signs that your filters are failing, how often you should change your filters, and the worst-case scenarios if you ignore your filters.