- Created: 12-01-22
- Last Login: 12-01-22
All interested parties are welcome to join in the ongoing revisions to D3953,
Specification for Strapping, Flat Steels and Seals. The standard is under the jurisdiction
of Subcommittee D10.25 on Palletizing and Unitizing of Loads, part of ASTM International
Committee D10 on Packaging.
According to its scope, D3953 covers flat steel strapping and seals intended for use in closing, reinforcing,
bundling articles for shipment, unitizing, palletizing and bracing for carloading,
truckloading, lifting and lashing. "Most people have dealt with the material covered
by D3953 without knowing it," says Anthony Mariano, Independent Metal Strap Co. Inc.,
and a D10 member.
"As one of the first modern materials used for unitizing and bundling,
strapping is well-known to packaging users, but since the last full review of
D3953, there have been many changes in technology, especially in closure methods,"
says Peter Catlos, chairman of D10.25. These technological changes will be addressed in
Catlos notes that waxed steel strapping is widely used in the lumber, metals and paper
industries. The standard is used to specify strapping products for purchase, in package
design and in design of load securement techniques for over-the-road, rail and maritime
transport of goods. Section 13 of D3953 includes several test methods for steel strapping.
Every person who has ever worked with galvanized steel strapping knows that this can
be a potentially dangerous product. When talking to potential customers I hear many
stories from people who have been injured by steel banding. Either caused by loose hanging
pieces of cut metal strapping or when applying and the steel snapped unexpectedly.
Companies take many safety precautions to protect their employees. Safety glasses,
helmets, shoes are part of most workers Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) and still many
companies provide their staff with "razor blades" to secure their products. Of
course there are always people that deny the risks of steel banding but fact is that
people getting cut is very high on the list of job related accidents.
Cordstrap already recognized this risk over 50 years ago and invented a safe
alternative for steel banding. The latest generation of Cordstrap strapping is a composite
strap made of high tenacity polyester yarns embedded in a PP coating. The Cordstrap
strapping products are an extremely strong alternative for steel banding. Due to the
unique buckle joint Cordstrap's overall system strength will be higher compared with
Most of all, Cordstrap strapping systems are safe for your products, safe for your
employees and safe for your customers. In Australia Cargo Restraint Systems offers a wide
range of Cordstrap systems. We always welcome the opportunity to take a closer look at
your applications and provide you with a safe solution. Just contact us and it will be our
pleasure to assist you.
Pallet strapping, or banding is the process of using a metal or plastic strap to
unitize, palletize or bundle products together. Strapping is used in a variety of
industries from shipping large industrial equipment and lumber to reinforcing cases in e-
commerce fulfilment centres. For this reason, there are many grades and types of materials
on the market today.
Strapping is applied either manually with a hand tool or automatically with a
strapping machine. In both cases, a strap or band is feed around the product and pulled
taught. A fastening method then secures the ends of the strap around the product and the
excess material is removed.
Strapping materials are available in many different strengths with specific grades and
classifications. It is important to understand these grades and how they can affect your
material choice when choosing your packaging. How your product is transported will affect
the rating system and materials used. The two associations who grade strapping are the
American Association of Railroads and ASTM International. Although ratings can be similar,
it is important to understand that the designations are not interchangeable.
With a variety of applications and uses, it is important to understand the different
types of strapping materials. The materials used come in multiple strength levels as well
as elongation and recovery rates.
Elongation and recovery are important for loads that are susceptible to sudden
shifting. The movement will apply tension to the strap as the load shifts. As the shifting
occurs, a strap can stretch to reduce the impact of sudden inertia changes. The straps
recovery ability of the strap will indicate the straps ability to return to its original
To date, repair of damaged columns has become increasingly more significant. The
failure of columns structure contributes to the serious consequences in structural
stability. Most of the existing repairing techniques are based on lateral passive
confining pressure. However, this passive-type of confinement is ineffective in restoring
the performance of damaged concrete columns. In this regards, active confinement was
selected in this study to repair damaged concrete columns which can actively confine
concrete in this study. Tempered Spring Steel Strip tensioning technique (SSTT) allows pre-tensioning
low-cost recycled steel straps around the damaged column was chosen herein to represent
active confinement. A total of 12 columns were prepared and loaded axially to certain
degree of their respective ultimate strength. Hence, a pre-damage level of the columns was
developed. Then, the damaged columns repaired by using mortar and confined with SSTT.
Finally, the repaired columns were then tested under monotonic uniaxial load. The
structural performances of the confined repaired columns were compared with those of the
repaired columns without confinement. It is expected that as the concrete compressive
strength increases, the effectiveness in restoring the load carrying capacity of the
damaged column becomes more significant.
The efficacy of post-tensioned metal straps PTMS, wrapped around steel channels
anchored to normal reinforced concrete (R.C) beams is tested in increasing the
capacity of the beams. For this purpose, nine normal R.C beams with dimensions of 160
mm x 240 mm x 2100 mm are constructed to fail in bending. The location and the number
the straps are considered as the main variable. It is found that using PTMS can
load-carrying capacity of the beam by 29% to 63%. The decisive factors affecting the
increase are the location of the straps (at the bottom or sides), shape of the flange
edges (squared or rounded) and alignment of the flanges (vertical or inclined). A
guide can be found in the paper as it is a novel method of strengthening beams which
be applied to the beams cast in place with integral slabs
Editor’s note: The following column by Shaun Bryce, director of Melbourne Packaging,
is part of Modern’s Other Voices column, a series featuring ideas, opinions and insights
from end-users, analysts, systems integrators and OEMs. Click here to learn about
submitting a column for consideration.
The strapping and industrial packaging industries can be challenging to get your head
around if you haven’t had any exposure to them, or their products, before. Are you
feeling overwhelmed about the components that are used with the manual tools as well as
the high-tech automatic machines?
Let’s get back to basics and break down everything you need to know about strapping
products. With this information, you’ll be able to make the right choice for your
The first step is to consider if you need to implement them in your business or not.
Small businesses that need strapping for carton, crates, or pallets less than 15 times a
month will find a manually operated tool is sufficient for their needs. If you need to
perform this task every day, you’ll benefit from investing in a strapping machine.
You’ll find it will boost your productivity because it will save your team time.
You should also look at your team’s capacity. Automated machines could free up your
staff to focus on other areas that need attention. This could improve productivity,
motivation, and quality control. Most important is protecting your product. A simple
investment in a strapping tool could drastically reduce the damage your items experience
in transit. Damaged boxes or pallets can be an overhead that affects your bottom line and
your brand’s reputation. More suppliers may be willing to work with you if they know your
packaging arrives safe, secure, and undamaged.
Perform an audit on your loads. If you work with smaller cartons, a table or arch
strapper is the right product for your business. Large crates and pallets can be strapped
manually unless you’re working with large volumes. In this case, you should investigate
horizontal or vertical pallet strappers.
The type of materials you need to secure will also inform your choice in a strapping
machine. For example, industries that trade in the print media area will require
specialized machines to use on palletized loads.
Another thing you need to explore is the strapping that you will be used to secure
your products. They will affect the tools you use and the method you apply them.
Polypropylene is inexpensive and can be used for many applications. It is usually secured
using a buckle and tensioner system, metal crimping seal or can be friction welded. A
tensioner tool can be used to achieve the correct tension. Steel strapping can be secured
with metal crimping seals using a device that crimps the strap.