How to Use Different Types of Strapping Material

All interested parties are welcome to join in the ongoing revisions to D3953,

Specification for Strapping, Flat Steels and Seals. The standard is under the jurisdiction

of Subcommittee D10.25 on Palletizing and Unitizing of Loads, part of ASTM International

Committee D10 on Packaging.

According to its scope, D3953 covers flat steel strapping and seals intended for use in closing, reinforcing,

bundling articles for shipment, unitizing, palletizing and bracing for carloading,

truckloading, lifting and lashing. "Most people have dealt with the material covered

by D3953 without knowing it," says Anthony Mariano, Independent Metal Strap Co. Inc.,

and a D10 member.

"As one of the first modern materials used for unitizing and bundling,

oiled steel

 is well-known to packaging users, but since the last full review of

D3953, there have been many changes in technology, especially in closure methods,"

says Peter Catlos, chairman of D10.25. These technological changes will be addressed in

ongoing revisions.

Catlos notes that waxed steel strapping is widely used in the lumber, metals and paper

industries. The standard is used to specify strapping products for purchase, in package

design and in design of load securement techniques for over-the-road, rail and maritime

transport of goods. Section 13 of D3953 includes several test methods for steel strapping.

Every person who has ever worked with galvanized steel strapping knows that this can

be a potentially dangerous product. When talking to potential customers I hear many

stories from people who have been injured by steel banding. Either caused by loose hanging

pieces of cut metal strapping or when applying and the steel snapped unexpectedly. 

Companies take many safety precautions to protect their employees. Safety glasses,

helmets, shoes are part of most workers Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) and still many

companies provide their staff with "razor blades" to secure their products. Of

course there are always people that deny the risks of steel banding but fact is that

people getting cut is very high on the list of job related accidents.

Cordstrap already recognized this risk over 50 years ago and invented a safe

alternative for steel banding. The latest generation of Cordstrap strapping is a composite

strap made of high tenacity polyester yarns embedded in a PP coating. The Cordstrap

strapping products are an extremely strong alternative for steel banding. Due to the

unique buckle joint Cordstrap's overall system strength will be higher compared with

steel banding.

Most of all, Cordstrap strapping systems are safe for your products, safe for your

employees and safe for your customers. In Australia Cargo Restraint Systems offers a wide

range of Cordstrap systems. We always welcome the opportunity to take a closer look at

your applications and provide you with a safe solution. Just contact us and it will be our

pleasure to assist you.

Pallet strapping, or banding is the process of using a metal or plastic strap to

unitize, palletize or bundle products together. Strapping is used in a variety of

industries from shipping large industrial equipment and lumber to reinforcing cases in e-

commerce fulfilment centres. For this reason, there are many grades and types of materials

on the market today.

Strapping is applied either manually with a hand tool or automatically with a

strapping machine. In both cases, a strap or band is feed around the product and pulled

taught. A fastening method then secures the ends of the strap around the product and the

excess material is removed.

Strapping materials are available in many different strengths with specific grades and

classifications. It is important to understand these grades and how they can affect your

material choice when choosing your packaging. How your product is transported will affect

the rating system and materials used. The two associations who grade strapping are the

American Association of Railroads and ASTM International. Although ratings can be similar,

it is important to understand that the designations are not interchangeable.

With a variety of applications and uses, it is important to understand the different

types of strapping materials. The materials used come in multiple strength levels as well

as elongation and recovery rates.

Elongation and recovery are important for loads that are susceptible to sudden

shifting. The movement will apply tension to the strap as the load shifts. As the shifting

occurs, a strap can stretch to reduce the impact of sudden inertia changes. The straps

recovery ability of the strap will indicate the straps ability to return to its original


To date, repair of damaged columns has become increasingly more significant. The

failure of columns structure contributes to the serious consequences in structural

stability. Most of the existing repairing techniques are based on lateral passive

confining pressure. However, this passive-type of confinement is ineffective in restoring

the performance of damaged concrete columns. In this regards, active confinement was

selected in this study to repair damaged concrete columns which can actively confine

concrete in this study. Tempered Spring Steel Strip tensioning technique (SSTT) allows pre-tensioning

low-cost recycled steel straps around the damaged column was chosen herein to represent

active confinement. A total of 12 columns were prepared and loaded axially to certain

degree of their respective ultimate strength. Hence, a pre-damage level of the columns was

developed. Then, the damaged columns repaired by using mortar and confined with SSTT.

Finally, the repaired columns were then tested under monotonic uniaxial load. The

structural performances of the confined repaired columns were compared with those of the

repaired columns without confinement. It is expected that as the concrete compressive

strength increases, the effectiveness in restoring the load carrying capacity of the

damaged column becomes more significant.

The efficacy of post-tensioned metal straps PTMS, wrapped around steel channels

anchored to normal reinforced concrete (R.C) beams is tested in increasing the


capacity of the beams. For this purpose, nine normal R.C beams with dimensions of 160

mm x 240 mm x 2100 mm are constructed to fail in bending. The location and the number


the straps are considered as the main variable. It is found that using PTMS can

enhance the

load-carrying capacity of the beam by 29% to 63%. The decisive factors affecting the

increase are the location of the straps (at the bottom or sides), shape of the flange

and web

edges (squared or rounded) and alignment of the flanges (vertical or inclined). A


guide can be found in the paper as it is a novel method of strengthening beams which


be applied to the beams cast in place with integral slabs

Editor’s note: The following column by Shaun Bryce, director of Melbourne Packaging,

is part of Modern’s Other Voices column, a series featuring ideas, opinions and insights

from end-users, analysts, systems integrators and OEMs. Click here to learn about

submitting a column for consideration.

The strapping and industrial packaging industries can be challenging to get your head

around if you haven’t had any exposure to them, or their products, before. Are you

feeling overwhelmed about the components that are used with the manual tools as well as

the high-tech automatic machines?

Let’s get back to basics and break down everything you need to know about strapping

products. With this information, you’ll be able to make the right choice for your


The first step is to consider if you need to implement them in your business or not.

Small businesses that need strapping for carton, crates, or pallets less than 15 times a

month will find a manually operated tool is sufficient for their needs. If you need to

perform this task every day, you’ll benefit from investing in a strapping machine.

You’ll find it will boost your productivity because it will save your team time.

You should also look at your team’s capacity. Automated machines could free up your

staff to focus on other areas that need attention. This could improve productivity,

motivation, and quality control. Most important is protecting your product. A simple

investment in a strapping tool could drastically reduce the damage your items experience

in transit. Damaged boxes or pallets can be an overhead that affects your bottom line and

your brand’s reputation. More suppliers may be willing to work with you if they know your

packaging arrives safe, secure, and undamaged.

Perform an audit on your loads. If you work with smaller cartons, a table or arch

strapper is the right product for your business. Large crates and pallets can be strapped

manually unless you’re working with large volumes. In this case, you should investigate

horizontal or vertical pallet strappers.

The type of materials you need to secure will also inform your choice in a strapping

machine. For example, industries that trade in the print media area will require

specialized machines to use on palletized loads.

Another thing you need to explore is the strapping that you will be used to secure

your products. They will affect the tools you use and the method you apply them.

Polypropylene is inexpensive and can be used for many applications. It is usually secured

using a buckle and tensioner system, metal crimping seal or can be friction welded. A

tensioner tool can be used to achieve the correct tension. Steel strapping can be secured

with metal crimping seals using a device that crimps the strap.

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